Hard Water Facts

1. What is water?
An “element”. Its chemical formula is H2O. Chemically pure water does not occur in nature (and for that reason, neither in households). Usually water contains minerals, mainly calcium and magnesium salts. These constituents render the water hard and are therefore termed “hardness constituents”.

2. What do the hardness constituents cause?
They cause deposits of scale on the inner walls of pipes, in boilers and all water conducting systems, e.g. once-through systems.

3. What do the deposits cause?
The scale build-up reduces the free flow of water and limits the heat transfer.

4. Are metals also attacked?
Water may cause corrosion. Piping systems and water heaters are attacked and destroyed (rust). Furthermore, the forming of iron oxide results in a brownish discoloration of the water.

5. How can the damage be managed?
By costly cleaning and repair work or even complete renewal of the water conducting system.

6. How can the damage be prevented?
As a result of years of research work, BK Landenburg became the first company on the German market to develop a treatment system based on the “threshold effect”.

In very small feed doses, Mikrophos prevents the deposition of hardness constituents from the water as well as corrosion due to aeration cells and brownish water.

7. What is Mikrophos?
Mikrophos is a slowly soluble sodium-calcium-polyphosphate in glass-like pieces.

8. How does Mikrophos work?
Mikrophos stabilizes the hardness constituents and thus prevents the precipitation of primarily calcium carbonate. Heavy metal ions are complexed by Mikrophos and deposits are thus avoided.

9. Does Mikrophos also control corrosion?
By reacting with the hardness forming ions in the water Mikrophos establishes a protective layer of iron-calcium-phosphates along the inner surface of the pipes. In this way Mikrophos has a marked corrosion-inhibiting effect.

10. Which water should be treated with Mikrophos?
Water with a tendency to precipitate hardness or even form scale as well as water with corrosive properties.

11. Are there any concerns with regard to drinking water which has been treated with Mikrophos?
The quality of drinking water is not affected by Mikrophos treatment at all.
Mikrophos is approved by law for treatment of drinking water and undergoes a permanent quality control in terms of purity.

12. How is the water treated with Mikrophos?
As the water passes through the dispenser unit, the Mikrophos is slowly dissolved and released into the water system.

13. How much Mikrophos is needed?
Mikrophos is slowly soluble. Only a few parts per million of active matter is released into the water.

14. Is it worthwhile to install dispenser units into private households?
Depending on water quality even in small houses, water can cause substantial damage due to corrosion. Therefore, Mikrophos feeding is recommended.

15. How must a dispenser unit be sized?
The size is dependent on the water consumption.

16. What about running costs?
The running costs are very low, since the consumption of Mikrophos, depending on the water quality and temperature is only between 2 and 5g for 1 liter of water.

17. What materials are the dispenser units composed of?
The small units holding up to 10kg of Mikrophos consist of a transparent plastic cylinder. The top and bottom sections with the connection threads are made of corrosion resistant metal or unbreakable plastic. The larger units which hold 1 kg – 150 kg (for large industrial plants, for medium sized and small works, for hotels, hospitals, public bath, etc…) are made from corrosion resistant metal.

18. Where is the dispenser unit best installed?
The dispenser unit is preferably installed behind the water meter and the fine filter.

19. What points should be observed when installing the dispenser unit?
Dispenser units should, if possible, not be installed near radiators, boilers, hot water pipes, etc., since heat impairs the normal dissolving speed of Mikrophos, which is of decisive importance to its efficacy.

20. What other factors have to be considered?
The water pressure should not exceed 10 bars. A bypass line is needed to fill the dispenser unit.

21. Who will install the units?
Any plumber should be able to do this in a short time.

22. When do the dispenser units have to be serviced or refilled?
The decrease in quantity of Mikrophos in the units is a function of the water consumption. We recommend that the units be checked every 3 or 4 months and then be refilled when about 1/3 of the quantity has been used. Servicing should be carried out by an expert, either a plumber or service company.

23. In which pre-packed quantities is Mikrophos supplied?
In original sizes holding 1kg, and 25 kg.

24. Are there any other precautions?
Please note that this product becomes very sharp and brittle and can cause injury if the canister is emptied using your bare hands. Always use thick gloves and tools.

If the water system is not going to be used for a long period, remove
the crystals from the housing, as they would dissolve totally over time if
they stand in stagnant water. NB. Use gloves.